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Have Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri Rewritten the Communist manifesto for the Twenty-First Century?
Slavoj Zizek

Capitalism is not just a historical epoch among others. In a way, the once fashionable and now half-forgotten Francis Fukuyama was right: global capital is “the end of history.” A certain excess which was, as it were, kept under check in previous history, perceived as a localizable perversion, as an excess, a deviation, is in capitalism elevated into the very principle of social life, in the speculative movement of money begetting more money, of a system which can survive only by constantly revolutionizing its own conditions-that is to say, in which the thing can survive only as its own excess, constantly exceeding its own “normal” constraints. And, perhaps it is only today, in global capitalism in its “postindustrial”, digitalized form, that, to put it in Hegelian terms, really existing capitalism is reaching the level of its notion: perhaps, one should follow again Marx’s old, antievolutionist motto (incidentally taken verbatim from Hegel) that the anatomy of man provides the key for the anatomy of the monkey-that is, in order to deploy the inherent, notional structure of a social formation, one must start with its most developed form. +

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Identity, Immigration & Democracy
Francis Fukuyama

Seymour Martin Lipset was a colleague of mine at George Mason University, and for the years I was there we taught a course together oncomparative politics that was originally based on his book American Exceptionalism. I learned an extraordinary amount from talking to Lipset, reading his books, and listening to his lectures, and I appreciatethe opportunity to apply some of his thinking to our current situation. +

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Homo Sacer. Sovereign Power and Bare Life
Giorgio Agamben


The Greeks had no single term to express what we mean by the word “life.” They used two terms that, although traceable to a common etymological root, are semantically and morphologically distinct: zoē, which expressed the simple fact of living common to all living beings (animals, men, or gods), and bios, which indicated the form or way of living proper to an individual or a group. When Plato mentions three kinds of life in the Philebus, and when Aristotle distinguishes the contemplative life of the philosopher (bios theōrētikos) from the life of pleasure (bios apolaustikos) and the political life (bios politikos) in the Nichomachean Ethics, neither philosopher would ever have used the term zoē (which in Greek, significantly enough, lacks a plural). This follows from the simple fact that what was at issue for both thinkers was not at all simple natural life but rather a qualified life, a particular way of life. +

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Materials for an exploratory theory of the network society
Manel Castells


This article aims at proposing some elements for a grounded theory of the network society. The network society is the social structure characteristic of theInformation Age, as tentatively identified by empirical, cross-cultural investigation. It permeates most societies in the world, in various cultural and institutional manifestations, as the industrial society characterized the social structureof both capitalism and statism for most of the twentieth century. +

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Globalization: social theory and global culture
Roland Robertson

By endowing nations, societies, or cultures with the qualities of internally homogeneous and externally distinctive and bounded objects, we create a model of the world as a global pool hall in which the entities spin off each other like so many hard and round billiard balls +

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